Human Subspecies

a10 » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 1

In Brief

“No race is superior, no race is inferior – they are all just a bit different.” — Stefan Molyneux
Subspecieism is the belief that all modern Homo sapiens are not the same. Subspecieists believe that there is vast diversity among modern humans and that our differences should not be downplayed, overlooked or concealed.  Further, subspecieists believe that human diversity should not only be recognized, but celebrated and encouraged.  In short, subspecieists favor maximum diversity for mankind. 
Professor John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin describes subspecieism best (YouTube, 2013, Omo Kibish), “People around the world today are enormously diverse.  They behave in different ways. Some of the differences we see today are differences in anatomy. We look at people around the world and we see that they’re very diverse in the shapes of their skulls, in their height, and other aspects of their biology.” Hawks continues [modern human diversity] “from Khoisan to Beijing, that difference in genetic terms… a sort of crazy level difference.” (2019 Gibraltar Conference on Neanderthals).
Subspecieism is synonymous with human biodiversity, human species variation, or subpopulations.  Race realism is also consistent with subspecieism. Though, population diversity deniers often use the term in a pejorative sense, and wrongly associate race realists with racism.
Archaeologist/bio-geneticist Eleanor Scerri of the Max Plank Inst., has referred to “species variationsism,” (et.al 2019 pdf).  Paleo-anthropologist Dr. Bernard Wood of George Washington Univ. utilizes “subtribes” and cladistics, sometimes referred to as Phenetics. (2011, pdf)
As Prof. of Anthropology Rachel Casapari, at Michigan Univ. explained (YT, 42.20 mins): “The word race comes from the word ‘razza’ the old Italian word razza, and it means lineage… That race exists because scientists have shown that there are genetic differences between populations. We know that.  We can see that there’s differences between populations.”
“The more complex we realize our evolution has been, the more remarkable it seems.  It’s the product of multiple populations, over millions of years existing together and exchanging genetic material.  It’s aided our process of adaptation, that has allowed us to thrive in a range of environments all over the world.” — PBS Eons, The Missing Link

Roots of Subspecieism

Subspecieist“Linnaeus… an 18th century Swedish botanist who took it upon himself to categorize every single living being on the planet…  and he did a pretty good job… he actually coined the phrase Homo sapien. But looking around the world at the diversity of humans he said, well you know, we seem to come in discreet subspecies or categories.” — Geneticist, Anthropologist Spencer Wells,  TED Global 2007
Modern subspecieists follow in the footsteps of many of the great 18th and 19th century anthropologists and naturalists such as Lineaus, pioneering anatomist and physician Edward Tyson, Thomas Huxley and Charles Darwin.
“The theory of evolution by natural selection showed that organisms with variations best adapted to their particular environment were the ones most likely to survive, thereby shaping the future development of the species.” (isg.org, Jan. 2020)
Besides Darwin and Huxley, subspeciests embrace many beliefs of other classical anthropologists, geneticists, zoologists and even explorers, including: Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, Franz Weidenreich, Carleton Coon, James Watson, Louis Leakey, Robert Broom, Desmond Morris, Oso Johnson and E.O. Wilson.
Their views fell out of favor for some 60 years, starting in the late 1950s. Dr. Watson for example, the co-founder of DNA, was shunned and accused of “racism” for suggesting varied degrees of intelligence in differing ethnic groups. (The Guardian 2007). Even Linnaeus, Huxley and Darwin himself have been accused of racism, by a number of agenda driven anthropologists, lecturers and authors in recent years.  
Now everything has come full circle. Newly unearthed hominid fossils are being discovered at a remarkably fast pace.  There have been amazing finds in 2021.  For example: Homo longi (Dragon Man) and Homo nesher ramla in Israel. Additionally, computational genetics research and DNA extraction methods are advancing to levels never before imagined possible.  These advances are confirming the views of the old guard naturalists, paleontologists and anthropologists of decades and centuries ago. Sadly, few if any of them have received the recognition they deserve.
a11 » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 2

Modern Human Diversity

“Wherever Homo arose, and Africa is at present the most likely continent, he soon dispersed, in a very primitive form, throughout the warm regions of the Old World….If Africa was the cradle of mankind, it was only an indifferent kindergarten. Europe and Asia were our principal schools.” — Carleton Coon, The Origin of Races (Google Books)

Ethnic Europeans significant Neanderthal DNA

Genetics experts such as Swedish biologist Dr. Svante Pääbo and his colleague Johannes Krause of the Max Plank Insitute in Germany, have discovered that whites have as much as 2 to 4% Neanderthal DNA. 
And there is much evidence to suggest that percentage could be even more. Archaeologist and British writer Peter Frost asserts, “Neanderthal admixture in present-day Eurasians is probably a bit higher than the estimated 1 to 4%.” (Unz.com 2017)
Konrad Lohse and Laurent Franz, in a research paper, 2014 published in Genetics NIH.gov: “reveals strong support for Neanderthal admixture…  at a higher rate… 3.4 to 7.3%”.
In a 2019 Simons Foundation lecture (10:10), famed Paleontologist Richard Leakey remarked, “It’s very clear.  Not everyone has a proportion of a genetic make-up from Neanderthal.  But some do. It’s about 4%.”
In 2012, Geneticist Spencer Wells gave a Neanderthal DNA test to 3 journalists at a UCD-San Diego conference.  WSJ’s James Fallows, of Scottish ancestry, scored a stunning 5%, The Atlantic 2013. (See clarification from Dr. Wells Tweeted to Subspecieist.com Jan. 2019 in site Archives). 
Huw Goucutt, archaeologist with the Max Planck Inst. in Leipzig, Germany suggests archaic introgression to be “4 to 6%.”
Americans taking 23 and Me are surprised to find they score 4% Neanderthal and above.  A San Francisco DNA test taker was quoted “It’s way cool to be a cave man.”  (5 News – KPIX, 2017)
“Here’s the stunning bit. People from Africa do not have this Neanderthal DNA.  But the rest of us all do. Which means it had to have arrived after Homo sapiens left Africa.” — Dr. Jonica Newby (ABC TV, Sept. 2012)

Modern Euros uniquely adapted

SubspecieistEuropeans’ Neanderthal admixture could explain exceptional abilities in logic, reasoning, innovation and adaption to challenging environments.

Chris Stringer, Financial Times, July 2019: “Some Neanderthal DNA… seemingly gave advantages in areas such as…  environmental adaptation and were accordingly retained and even accentuated.”

Prof Clive Finlayson, a friend of Chris Stringer and director of the Gibraltar Museum explains (BBC Jan. 2019), “the bulky Neanderthals may not have been as suited as our long-distance running ancestors to chasing herds across the mammoth steppe… [however] they were probably better… at ambush hunting large animals at close quarters from cover.”

Spencer Wells,  Journey of Man, (1:02): “The Ice Age was to cut the first Europeans off, eliminating any contact with the outside world. In isolation they developed distinctive traits. Their hair color changed; the shape of their noses changed; even their height. Today, people with European ancestry… look pretty different from our distant ancestors.”

Northern Extremes

According to the NY Times Dec 2016, “gene variants in Inuit who live in Greenland… may help them adapt to the cold by promoting heat-generating body fat.”  Inuits have an “evolutionary advantage” to overcome extremely cold temperatures from an unusually high mix of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.
The Evenki reindeer herders of extreme northern Siberia and neighboring Siberian populations from the Tungusic language group, also have this Neanderthal and Deniosvan admixture.  (Phys.org 2019). 

19th Century Variance in Modern Humans

a12 » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 3

The African Continent

“We do know that African populations derive some small fraction of their DNA, possibly as much as 5%… from archaic lineages that we haven’t discovered… there is some sign of some archaic lineage that’s contributed to some populations. What we don’t know is the identity of that lineage… It could be Naledi?”– Dr. John Hawks, lecture Oct 2017 Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison

According to Harvard professor of genetics David Reich, Africa has “the greatest human diversity in genetics in the world.”  Genomics Prof. Sarah Tiskhoff agrees, “when studying African populations… you’re going to see they’re very genetically diverse within and between groups.” (UPenn lecture, Jan. 2020)

As human geneticist Robin McKie notes, “Neanderthal DNA is absent in people of African origins because they remained in our species’s homeland.” (The Guardian, 2018). However, very recent genetics studies suggest some mainly upper Continental Africa tribes like the Yoruba and Fulani might have tiny traces of Neanderthal, up to .3%.  This came largely via introgression by back-migrating Euros with Neanderthal DNA. (Science Mag 2020)

Less clear are genetic markers from ghost populations in the Afro-genome. As genetics magazine Helix notes, “The genetics of Africa and a mysterious human population,” 2018: “Current research indicates that between 2-7% of the DNA in some modern African people may come from this unknown archaic human group.”

Svante Pääbo on a possible archaic mix: “I think there’s good reason to think that they mixed with other forms inside of Africa.  There’s some indications of that in the genomes of present day Africans.” (UCTV 2018).

His colleague and friend, Pascal Gagneux, Dir. of the Center for Anthropology at UCD-San Diego, conference June 8, 2019 agrees: “They [Africans] do not have that 2% of Neanderthal.  They have some other archaic introgression, which is super interesting.”

Òscar Lao, principal investigator at the National Centre for Genome Analysis (CNAG-CRG) Phys.org, 2019: “What has surprised us [on] genetic diversity found in African populations today, the presence… of an extinct archaic African population, with whom anatomically modern humans would have mixed,” he adds. This result indicates that not only were there archaic populations different from the sapiens lineage outside Africa… but that within this continent there were sub-populations with which anatomically modern humans who remained in Africa had offspring.”

HomoerectusMan » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 4The identity of the African admixture is still unconfirmed.  But researchers seem to be closing in. Arun Durvasula and Sriram Sankararaman from the University of California in Los Angeles have described the ancestor as a “ghost species” or quite possibly Homo naledi a “small-brained hominin” on the “African plains 250,000 years ago.” (IFL Science)

But there’s another contender: “Homo heidelbergensis was a more advanced hominin living in Africa circa 200,000 years ago and a more probable contestant.”

Lindsay Barone of Cold Harbor Springs Inst. in NY explains (YouTube) that Heidelbergensis, Homo naledi and Homo sapiens were all roaming around Africa at the same time 300,000 years ago. “About 325,000 years ago there were anatomically modern humans, there were Homo heidelbergensis, and very soon after that a later species called Homo naledi.”

Peter Frost (NatGeo) suggests, about 13% of the African genome comes from these archaic “paleo-Africans” who “lacked something modern humans had” putting them at a disadvantage. Frost writes this might explain the “limited capacity for symbolic thinking and social organization.”

Very recent fossil finds suggest “a little-brained shadow lineage was lingering on from a much earlier period,” at the same time Homo sapiens roamed the African plains.

Omer Gokcumen, prof. of biology at the Univ. of Buffalo believes “This unknown human relative could be a species that has been discovered, such as a subspecies of Homo erectus…”  (BigThink.com 2018).

Gokumen has done extensive research on the “important mucin protein called MUC7 that is found in saliva.” What they found, “a group of genomes from Sub-Saharan Africa presented a variant of MUC7 that was extremely different to versions observed in all other modern human populations.” This strongly suggested “ancient hominim” introgression into modern Africans. (AncientNews.net, 2017)

Note – Homo erectus spread worldwide over 1 million years ago. Homo ergaster is considered by some to be the African branch of Erectus. Heidelbergensis is believed to have emerged from Ergaster/Erectus. (Smithsonian). Late Heidelbergensis is putative Homo rhodesiensas.

Dr. Lee Berger, Resident Explorer at National Geographic believes Africans’ admixture could be with “primitive… tiny brain” Homo naledi (NatGeo 2015), and adds moderns and archaics lived side-by-side and may even have interbred: “You can imagine how disruptive that might have been.”

 

The San Bushmen of the Kalahari

SanBushmen » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 5The Khoe-San of the Kalahari have separate lineage from other Africans.  Spencer Wells (PBS National Geo) has called the bushmen (Khoisan) and the related click-speaking !Kung tribe in Namibia, the last remaining original humans.  Wells says that of all the people on earth “the San are direct descendants of our oldest ancestors.”

David Reich agrees, “The Khoe-san are such a genetically distinctive people,” (phys.org).

British Science Journalist  (NatGeo, The Atlantic) Ed Yong calls the Khoisan “one of the oldest human groups on the planet.”

Computational biologist Dr. Adam Siepel of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory puts the origins of the Khoisan as far back as 200,000 years ago: [they are] “quite an old population.”  Siepel noted in a 2017 lecture that another genetics team, “estimated that a date for the split of the San [from] other African populations might be 260,000 years ago.”

Some such as Dutch science writer R.C. Camphausen have even suggested that these Africans may indeed be the only remaining pure-breed “100 percent Homo sapiens.”

OsaJohnson » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 6Geneticist Dr. Shi Huang  points to a study on SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) from 2010 covered by National Geographic: “All of the Bushmen had a version of the vitamin D receptor that is associated with denser bones and three of them have a variant linked to better sprinting performance. Some of the SNPs grant the carrier the ability to taste bitter plant chemicals…to avoid toxic plants. One of !Gubi’s variants could allow him to break down foreign substances or resist parasites.”

Archaic Introgression in Sub-Saharan Africans, late Australopithecines, Homo naledi?

The Mbuti and other related tribes such as the Mbenga and Twa, sometimes referred to collectively as Bayakas, have rather unique archaic lineage.  They are best known for their unusually small stature. Their population in Central Africa is estimated to be around 600,000.

A research paper in 2011, “Genetic Evidence for Archaic Admixture in Africa,” by multiple researchers affiliated with the Univ. of Arizona found:

RobertSephyr » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 7“Interestingly, the Mbuti represent the only population in our survey that carries the introgressive variant at all three candidate loci… Given that the Mbuti population is known to be relatively isolated from other Pygmy and neighboring non-Pygmy populations, this suggests that central Africa may have been the homeland of a now-extinct archaic form that hybridized with modern humans.”

More from Lee Berger, John Hawks research paper 2017, “Homo naledi and Pleistocene hominins”:  “the genomes of Hadza, Sandawe, Biaka, Baka, and San people bear evidence of a small fraction of introgression from highly genetically divergent populations that no longer exist.”

This would be consistent with controversial claims made by French Zoologist Bernard Heuvelmans PhD in the 1980s, that African Pygmies have significant genetic lineage from archaic Hominids.  According to Loren Coleman’s CryptoZoo blog, 2018: “Bernard Heuvelmans felt that some of the African varieties could be relict populations of Australopithecus.” (See also Les Bêtes Humaines d’Afrique book – Heuvelmans 1980)

Joshua Akey’s team at Princeton claims to have found .3% Neanderthal DNA in the African population.  However, as noted in the Tapei Times, Feb 2020: “It is not known whether all African populations, some of whose roots stretch into the deep past, share this Neanderthal heritage. KhoeSan (bushmen) and Mbuti (central African pygmy) populations, for instance, appear to have split off from other groups more than 100,000 years ago.”

A research paper issued in July, 2019 by Cindy Santander, Francesco Montinaro & Cristian Capelli, “Searching for archaic contribution in Africa,” cites a new “machine learning method, ArchIE” that found “SubSaharan populations derive 2–19% of their genetic ancestry from an archaic population that diverged before the split between Neanderthals and modern humans.”

The ArchIE method also led to another starling find, that “the archaic ancestry in Yoruba is best explained by admixture with an archaic ghost population more than the possibility of Neanderthal ancestry from back-migration or from admixture with an extant modern human population.”

West Africa and Homo iwoelerueensi

AlbertPerry » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 8Geneticist Razib Khan, a partner of Spencer Wells, has suggested archaic introgression from various hominids into moderns in two separate regions of Africa – western and southern (KhoiSan), June 26, 2021 – Substack.  Others have suggested western, eastern and southern.

Sriram Sankararaman in a 2020 lecture speculating on which ancient hominid might be the source of the ~19% archaic admixture, mentioned the Iwo Elehru skulls found in Nigeria.  Patrick Wadell, a professor of paleo-anthropology at Cornell University had dubbed the finds as Homo iwoelerueensi in a 2014 paper.  Sankararaman suggested Homo iwoelerueensi morphologically was closest to Homo laetoli, ScienceDirect.com 1983, archaic Homo sapiens 120kya.  Legendary paleo-anthropologists including Chris Stringer and Katerina Harvati are unsure as to whether Homo iwoelerueensi is an archaic hominid species that went extinct 10kya or just a variation of an archaic modern human.

Stringer told the BBC in 2011: “you’ve got a specimen that’s only 13,000 years old, but it looks like it should be another 100,000 years old [Homo rhodesiensis from Tanzania].  The archaic humans didn’t necessarily die off once they’d given rise to modern humans.   They may have been living in some parts of Africa alongside their descendants… and interbreeding…”

In 2013, a mysterious and extremely rare AOO Haplo-type was discovered in an African-American man in South Carolina (Subspecieist.com 2020).  The same Haplo-type was discovered when 11 men in a tiny village in western Cameroon were swabbed. (See Cameroon Research Project, 2017).  Did Homo iwoelerueensi survive into the present day?

Whether a unique archaic hominid or a surviving near extinct species, the geography suggests a possible candidate for West Africa introgression.

On a related note, a team from the Max Plank Inst. led by Johannes Krause in 2018, successfully analyzed DNA from the enigmatic Tarafolt tribe in Western Africa from 15kya (EurekaAlert.org): “no previously identified population has the precise combination of genetic markers that the Taforalt individuals had.”

 

AsiaWoman » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 9

Denisovan DNA in modern Asians

East Asians have roughly 5% Denisovan DNA.  According to ScienceMag.org:  “Denisovans interbred with H. sapiens… present-day human genetic makeup reflects that varied background, as in modern Melanesian populations… 4 to 6% [of DNA is] derived from Denisovans.”

Additionally, many Asians and Melanesians have traces of Homo Erectus DNA. According to Phys.org 2019, Erectus lived on in southeast Asia “as recently as 40,000 years ago… coexist[ing] with Homo sapiens.”  Chris Stringer has often stated in lectures, that he believes Homo erectus survived “in Java” til 70kya.  Sarah Tishkoff of the Univ. of Penn, in a 2013 lecture: “This species [Homo erectus] was very successful lasting to as recently as 25kya…”

Chinese Palaeoanthropologists suggest this introgression could explain Asians’ “facial flatness” (Paleoanthropology.net). The discovery of the Dali skull in China’s Shanxi province has led many paleontologists to conclude [that] “Homo erectus must have shared DNA with Homo sapiens” (NewsWeek 2017).

Wu Xinzhi, a paleontologist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) in Beijing is a leading advocate of this view.  He asserts, “it’s increasingly clear that many Asian materials cannot fit into the traditional narrative of human evolution” (Scientific American 2016)

TasmanianMan » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 10

Indian Ocean, Australia and Polynesia

Very recent archaeological finds suggest other previously unknown sub-species in islands off the Asian continent, including various Asiatic Pygmies such as Homo florensiensas (Hobbit man).

Australian and New Guinean aboriginal lines can be traced back to archaic humans, 60,000 to 80,000 years ago.   Svante Pääbo puts the New Guinean Denisovan percentage at fully 7%. (UCTV 2018). Pääbo and other geneticists believe they “may have [also] mated with a previously-unknown human species.” (SmithsonianMag.com Sep 2016)

Herto Man“If you’re Australian, there’s a chance that the person you’re sitting next to [Aborigine] is up to 5%, a brand new kind of ancient hominin, that until two years ago, we never even knew existed. You or your neighbor could be part Denisovan.” — Dr. Jonica Newby, interviewing Svante Pääbo (ABC TV, Sep. 2012)

David Reich from Harvard Museum of Natural History lecture, Dec. 3, 2018: “The Denisovan genome matched the New Guineans much more often.  This was definitely a real signal… we can estimate that New Guineans and some nearby populations have about 3 to 6% of their DNA derived from Denisovans.  Actually quite distant cousins of Denisovans from Siberia separated by about 300k years.”

And there is evidence of profound morphological distinction among Papuans and Aborigines from other AMHs. From a 2003 research paper by Tim White and his team of UC Berkeley,  on the famous Herto skulls, discovered in Ethiopia: “the closest approximations among modern individuals to the overall morphology, size and facial robusticity are found in some Australian and Oceanic individuals…”  Herto man (photo above – UC Berkeley) is considered one of the earliest of Anatomically Modern Humans at 160kya.

We are now learning that the Denisovans were an extremely varied species. And they may have lived on to as recently as 15kya in Papua New Guinea.  Professor Murray Cox in New Zealand has identified 3 distinct populations of Denisovans.

Sentinalese » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 11“They are all very different from Neanderthals – and very different from each other. What we found means that the origins of modern people are far more diverse and complex than any of us had imagined before.” (Microsoft News, Apr 2020)

One branch seems to have admixed with mainland Asians.  Another group interbred with Papuans: “the genomes of people from Papua New Guinea may be up to 5 per cent Denisovan…” NewScientist.com April 2020.

The Hobbits (sometimes referred too as Ebu Gogo) have received a great deal of attention in the last few years.  Homo floresiensas was first discovered in a cave on the island of Flores in 2003.

A most recent study by the Joshua Akey team found lots of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA in modern Floresiensas islanders, (Rampasas pygmies), but no other archaic.  However, Akey’s paper (phys.org) included this interesting note: “Floresiensis also differed from H. sapiens and H. erectus in their wrists and feet, probably due to the need to climb trees to evade Komodo dragons…”

One particular population on isolated islands off of India is a complete mystery. Spencer Wells, Insitome Q&A, 2017: “I’d be surprised at this point to see a [DNA mapping] result that would completely turn everything on its head. I mean, maybe the Sentinelese…”

“I would certainly think that an isolated population could do quite well… there are examples of mammals that were nearly extinct… but do extremely well.” — Svante Pääbo 2016 lecture  with David Reich in Israel.

Tibetans » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 12

Tibetans: Homo sapiens-denisovanus?

High Plateau Tibetans similar to the Evenki reindeer herders in northern Siberia have significant Neanderthal and Deniosvan admixture.
According to the ScienceTimes 2020, “Scientists were also able to discover that Tibetans also possess Denisovan traits which can explain why Sherpas are able to weather high altitudes…”
From New Scientist Nov 2018: “Most Tibetans carry an unusual stretch of DNA in their genomes…The Denisovan DNA seems to help Tibetans cope with the limited oxygen supply at altitude.” Professor Rasmus Nielsen at UC Berkeley on Tibetans – [higher altitudes] “when they breath they get about 60% more oxygen” (5-KPIX).
From Geek.com, May 2019, “160,000 Year Old Jawbone found in Tibet Cave”:
“According to the scientists, the Denisovans had already adapted to living in this high-altitude… genetic studies found present-day Himalayan populations to carry the EPAS1 allele in their genome, passed on to them by Denisovans, which helps with adaptation to their specific environment.”
“there were some genes where this [Neanderthal and Denisovan] DNA had an adaptive impact. For example, altitude adaptation in Tibetans was likely facilitated by a Denisovan introgressed gene.” — Human Genetics Prof. Sriram Sankararaman (enca.com Feb. 2020)

And now even more evidence of introgression.  From paleo-anthropology reporter, Bruce Bower, Oct. 2020, ScienceNews:

“Cave sediment possibly dating from 50,000 to 30,000 years ago also yielded Denisovan mitochondrial DNA, the scientists report in the Oct. 30 Science. If further research confirms that age estimate, it raises the likelihood that Denisovans survived on the Tibetan Plateau long enough to encounter the first humans to reach those heights as early as 40,000 years ago.

In that case, ancient humans new to the region’s thin air may have acquired advantageous genetic traits for that environment by mating with resident Denisovans.”

Supremacy?

“Thinking that one race is “superior” to another is like saying that the brown bear is “superior” to the polar bear.  The question makes no sense – each species adapts to its local environment.  That doesn’t mean that they will flourish as well in each other’s environment though.” — Canadian Libertarian philosopher, YouTube and podcast broadcaster Stefan Molyneux, Twitter Dec. 2018

a19 » Subspecieist Definitive Guide » Human Evolution News » 13